8 Mar, 24

What Happens When All Bitcoin are Mined?

what happens once all bitcoin are mined


Bitcoin, the world’s first and most well-known cryptocurrency, has a capped supply of 21 million coins, a deliberate design to mimic the scarcity of precious metals like gold. This article explores the future landscape of Bitcoin and its network once all bitcoins are mined, a milestone anticipated to be reached around the year 2140 – unless quantum computing gets to it first, that is.

The End of Bitcoin Mining Rewards

The process of mining Bitcoin rewards miners with new bitcoins for each block of transactions they successfully add to the blockchain. However, once the maximum supply of 21 million bitcoins is reached, these block rewards will cease​​. Miners will then solely rely on transaction fees as their compensation for validating transactions and securing the network​​.

Shift to Transaction Fees

With the cessation of mining rewards, transaction fees will become the primary incentive for miners. This shift is expected to ensure the ongoing security and viability of the network, despite the loss of block rewards. As Bitcoin’s adoption increases, the demand for transaction space on the blockchain is expected to rise, potentially leading to an increase in transaction fees​​.

Economic Implications and Network Security

The halving events, which reduce the block reward by half approximately every four years, are designed to gradually decrease Bitcoin’s inflation rate until all bitcoins are mined. These events, coupled with an eventual reliance on transaction fees, pose questions about the economic implications for miners and the overall security of the network. Despite concerns, various factors, such as technological advancements in mining and cheaper energy sources, may help offset revenue losses from reduced block rewards, ensuring miners can still profit and secure the network​​.

The Future of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency

The final bitcoin’s mining could signify a pivotal moment for the digital currency landscape. As transaction fees take a more prominent role, the dynamics of mining profitability and network participation may shift. Additionally, the capped supply of Bitcoin positions it as a deflationary asset, potentially influencing its value and adoption as a digital store of value comparable to gold​​. The cryptocurrency’s underlying technology and its consensus mechanism might evolve, adapting to new challenges and maintaining the network’s security and functionality​​.


The mining of the last bitcoin will mark a significant transition for the Bitcoin network, from an inflationary to a deflationary economic model. This change underscores the innovative approach to digital scarcity and monetary policy embedded in Bitcoin’s design. While the future implications for miners, users, and the broader cryptocurrency ecosystem remain subjects of speculation, the resilience and adaptability of Bitcoin’s network suggest a capacity to navigate these upcoming challenges.


  1. What will happen to Bitcoin miners when all bitcoins are mined?
    • Miners will no longer receive new bitcoins as rewards. They will depend on transaction fees for income​​.
  2. How will the Bitcoin network remain secure after all bitcoins are mined?
    • The expectation is that transaction fees will provide sufficient incentive for miners to continue validating transactions and securing the network​​.
  3. Will transaction fees increase once all bitcoins are mined?
    • Yes, as block rewards taper off, transaction fees are expected to become the primary revenue for miners, which could lead to higher fees​​.
  4. What is the economic implication of all bitcoins being mined?
    • Bitcoin will become a deflationary currency, potentially affecting its value and role as a digital store of wealth​​.
  5. How does the Bitcoin network adjust to changes in miner participation?
    • Bitcoin’s difficulty adjustment algorithm ensures that the network’s security is maintained even as miner participation fluctuates due to economic incentives or changes in the mining landscape​​.

About Zerocap

Zerocap provides digital asset liquidity and digital asset custodial services to forward-thinking investors and institutions globally. For frictionless access to digital assets with industry-leading security, contact our team at [email protected] or visit our website www.zerocap.com


This material is issued by Zerocap Pty Ltd (Zerocap), a Corporate Authorised Representative (CAR: 001289130) of AFSL 340799. Material covering regulated financial products is issued to you on the basis that you qualify as a “Wholesale Investor” for the purposes of Sections 761GA and 708(10) of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (Sophisticated/Wholesale Client). This material is intended solely for the information of the particular person to whom it was provided by Zerocap and should not be relied upon by any other person. The information contained in this material is general in nature and does not constitute advice, take into account the financial objectives or situation of an investor; nor a recommendation to deal. Any recipients of this material acknowledge and agree that they must conduct and have conducted their own due diligence investigation and have not relied upon any representations of Zerocap, its officers, employees, representatives or associates. Zerocap has not independently verified the information contained in this material. Zerocap assumes no responsibility for updating any information, views or opinions contained in this material or for correcting any error or omission which may become apparent after the material has been issued. Zerocap does not give any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of advice or information which is contained in this material. Except insofar as liability under any statute cannot be excluded, Zerocap and its officers, employees, representatives or associates do not accept any liability (whether arising in contract, in tort or negligence or otherwise) for any error or omission in this material or for any resulting loss or damage (whether direct, indirect, consequential or otherwise) suffered by the recipient of this material or any other person. This is a private communication and was not intended for public circulation or publication or for the use of any third party. This material must not be distributed or released in the United States. It may only be provided to persons who are outside the United States and are not acting for the account or benefit of, “US Persons” in connection with transactions that would be “offshore transactions” (as such terms are defined in Regulation S under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”)). This material does not, and is not intended to, constitute an offer or invitation in the United States, or in any other place or jurisdiction in which, or to any person to whom, it would not be lawful to make such an offer or invitation. If you are not the intended recipient of this material, please notify Zerocap immediately and destroy all copies of this material, whether held in electronic or printed form or otherwise.
 Disclosure of Interest: Zerocap, its officers, employees, representatives and associates within the meaning of Chapter 7 of the Corporations Act may receive commissions and management fees from transactions involving securities referred to in this material (which its representatives may directly share) and may from time to time hold interests in the assets referred to in this material.  Investors should consider this material as only a single factor in making their investment decision.

Like this article? Share
Latest Insights

8 Mar, 24

Ethereum Smart Contracts: How They Changed Crypto

Ethereum, launched in 2015, revolutionized the digital world by introducing “smart contracts,” self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. This

8 Mar, 24

Main Crypto Events in the World

The world of cryptocurrencies is dynamic and ever-evolving, with numerous conferences and events held globally to foster innovation, collaboration, and networking among crypto enthusiasts. Here’s

8 Mar, 24

What is Ethena Finance?

Ethena Finance (ENA/USDe) is emerging as a notable player in the cryptocurrency and decentralized finance (DeFi) sectors. Powered by its proprietary stablecoin, USDe, Ethena aims

Receive Our Insights

Subscribe to receive our publications in newsletter format — the best way to stay informed about crypto asset market trends and topics.

Want to see how bitcoin and other digital assets fit into your portfolio?

Contact Us
Ready to sign up?
Create an Account